Torque converters of the hydraulic type for the off-highway system have a similar outward appearance and some similarity to fluid flywheels or fluid couplings, which they have already studied. The operation is NOT the same. The conventional fluid coupling transmits the same amount of torque that is applied to it. A torque converter increases the amount of torque applied to it. This torque increase is skilled hydraulically within the unit itself. Many types of torque converters are used in engines.
TORQUE CONVERTER ACTION – The torque converter acts, in a sense, like a gear transmission with a large number of gear shift positions. It can transmit torque at a 1:1 ratio, or under certain conditions, it can rise or multiply this torque so that more torque is delivered more than is applied.
This compares with the transmission in low gear. In low gear, the speed through the information is reduced; this increases the torque. Remember that torque means a turning effect or twisting. When torque converter maintenance is increased, the rate is decreased. Conversely, when torque is reduced, the speed is increased.
In operation, all torque converters use the equipment to drive the pump or impeller. This part is welded into the converter housing, and the housing is bolted direly to the flywheel. The pump will then impel fluid against a turbine or turbines’ vanes linked to the transmission input shaft.
In the torque converter, the leading member usually is referred to as the pump, also called the impeller, while the driven part is called the turbine. There is no mechanical connection between the driving and the driven element.
Torq1viatic converters are either the four-element or three-element type. We have just discussed the standard three-element type. We will now look at the four-element type used in many heavy-duty trucks and construction equipment.
This type uses a standard stator and a second stator. The other elements in this converter are similar to the primary three-element type.
OPERATION — The stators are designed for freewheeling or automatically lock-up to provide the necessary reaction for torque converter maintenance multiplication. During the first phase, both stators are being held stationary by the fluid force, and the most significant amount of torque multiplication is being accomplished.
General Maintenance Information
- Check the liquid level daily according to the method recommended by the manufacturer.
NOTE: Do not overfill. The oil level must be conserved between the “FULL” and “ADD” groups. Overfilling causes heat and aeration.
a. Check for a burnt odor.
b. Check for a milky appearance.
c. Check the screen if these two conditions are found.
2. Inspect the following if a loss of liquid in the converter is indicated: a. Excessive spillage past converter seals b. Loose connections at oil lines to cooler c. All gasket connections and torque
Torque Converter Maintenance And Troubleshooting
3. Overheating of a torque converter may be caused by:
a. Air in the converter
b. Operating in a low-efficiency level for too long a period
c. High fluid level
d. Clogged oil cooler NOTE: It is considered low on fluid than high; if too short, transmission and converter will not move. (Correct the conditions that are causing overheating).
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